In this topic the learner is introduced to physics of radiotherapy, principles of linear accelerator, importance of radiotherapy pre-treatment procedures, treatment planning, daily treatment and side-effects of radiotherapy as well a short overview of breast cancer brachytherapy.
1. Demonstrates critical understanding of the basics of physical principles in relation to Radiotherapy (ionizing radiation, exposure, dose).
2. Concept of breast cancer external beam and radiotherapy brachytherapy treatment planning process (simulation, contouring, volumes, dosimetry) and daily treatment, including common side-effects and their management.
Learning material and test your knowledge: Physics and biology of radiotherapy and principles of the linear accelerator
These two presentations contain screen lectures and activities to test your knowledge. Navigate by using the arrows below the presentations.
PDF of presentations:
Take a look at the Prezi presentation of the principles of the linear accelerator. Please enter the presentation The principles of the Linear accelerator. Navigate inside prezi presentation by using arrows below the presentation to proceed logically.
Above you find a voice over of the Prezi presentation.
Test your knowledge on the LINAC
Drag and drop the component name at the bottom of the picture to the correct placement.
Mandatory reading on physics and biology of radiotherapy and principles of the linear accelerator
The exam also includes questions from this materials. Please read the articles and other written material. It takes about 7-8 hours for you to read through the material. In the first reference, sections on historical persons or non-medical examples may be omitted.
1. Henriksen T. Radiation and Health: University of Oslo; 2015. Chapters 1-3, 5, 10.
Try to answer these questions while reading:
- What is the relation between photon energy and frequency for electromagnetic radiation? What is the relation between photon energy and wavelength?
- What are the differences between X-rays and gamma-rays?
- What is ionisation? Which processes causes ionisation of atoms in human tissue during radiotherapy?
- Explain how the thickness of an attenuating material affects the attenuation of radiation.
- Explain how the distance from a point-like radiation source affects the intensity of radiation.
- What is a “Depth dose curve”, and which factors affect the depth of maximum absorbed dose?
- How does the LINAC work, and what are the differences between the photon-production mode and electron-production mode?
- What are the differences between direct and indirect effects of radiation in the cell?
- How does the concentration of oxygen affect the sensitivity to radiation of the cell?
- Explain the term “Therapeutic ratio”.
- What are the 5 Rs of radiotherapy?
Learning material: Radiotherapy pre-treatment procedures
A demo video of Tartu University Hospital of Haematology and Oncology illustrates patients pathway after getting a decision to proceed with radiotherapy.
This video contains phases like treatment planning CT scan, contouring organs at risk, delineation of clinical and planned target volume, creating a treatment plan and coming to the daily treatment.
Learning material and test your knowledge: Radiotherapy planning in breast cancer treatment
Take a look Prezi presentation of radiotherapy planning. Please enter the presentation Radiotherapy planning. Navigate inside prezi presentation by using arrows below the presentation to proceed logically.
What did you learn? Test how well you learned the topic radiotherapy planning in breast cancer treatment with the test below.
Learning material: Daily treatment of breast cancer
This is a presentation that contains both text and film clips. You will learn about the daily treatment of breast cancer patients. Inside the film clips there are reflection questions you can answer to test your knowlegde.
Learning material: Side-effects of radiotherapy
Here you find a Prezi presentation of side-effects of radiotherapy. Please enter the presentation side-effects of radiotherapy. Navigate inside prezi presentation by using arrows below the presentation to proceed logically.
Learning material: Brachytherapy for breast cancer
Here you find a Prezi presentation of brachytherapy for breast cancer. Please enter the presentation brachytherapy for breast cancer. Navigate inside prezi presentation by using arrows below the presentation to proceed logically.